The Ultimate Singapore Kopi O Kosong Peng Comparison Table

I dislike bubble tea.

Haters gonna hate.

Coffee tho. I’m a coffee guy. There’s something about the taste of black kopi (o kosong peng) that gets diluted with milk n sugar. That strong, bitter taste is rocket fuel to start the day.

Rocket Fuel

In my last post, I showed you how saving $3.60 on coffee could save you $10,000 at 35. The list of coffee prices was rough, so I thought I would get more specific and list all the prices of Singapore’s popular coffee spots.

I make these things to budget my life better. I hope you find em useful too.

Let’s start with cold coffee!

Note: Coffee bean only has one cold brew size, compared to Starbucks’ three.

ALSO, you can see that the maximum savings you can get is $5.50 a day on cold, black (heartless) coffee. According to my calculator (you can download it here), that’d save me $15,467 at 35.

$15,467 saved!

I thought it would also be interesting to list the prices for hot black coffee, which would eventually show us the price of ice after a quick subtraction.

The most you could save here is a comparable $5.3. Of course, a kopi o kosong is not the same as a Large from Coffee Bean. You might have to drink a little less coffee a day to make those savings. Ask yourself how much caffeine you really need.

Thought it would help to compile em all in a big graph too:

An awesome graph of coffee prices in Singapore.

Aaaand ice price!

Interesting to see the increase in markup on ice for smaller vendors. That extra 20c-$1.30 would amount to an extra $562 – $3,656 at 35.

I hope you found these tables and charts useful. I’ll be adding more coffee prices here as I see them, and the next topic will be on something close to heart – cookies.


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Singapore Stock Clock V2

I thought the original one needed tweaking.

Plonked it on a big canvas for croppability as a phone wallpaper!

Is it better or worse? Tell me what you think!

You can download the png here:

The Lifetime Savings Calculator: Which kopi will save you $10,000 at 35?

I love iced black coffee! (sans the sugar.)

Living a short walk from the local shopping mall and hawker centre, my mornings could involve a kopi o kosong peng or an iced americano. Sometimes I grind & press coffee beans at home, so… aiyoh, daily trilemma. But alas, variety is the spice of life.

Being a me, I had to list the options.

  • Kopi O Kosong Peng: $1.40
  • Kopi O Kosong Peng (Marked up): $3.00
  • Iced Americano: $5.00
  • Cold Brew: $5.80
  • Homemade: $2.00

Note on the Homemade: This will depend on your beans; I use 35g of beans a cup, so a 250g bag at $14 = seven cups at $1.96 each.

Look at the difference between an americano ($5) and kopi o kosong peng – you could be saving $3.60 a day!

What would this mean in a year? Or 5 years?

The answer is complicated – interest rates, inflation and options to invest need consideration.

Luckily for you,

Excel kung fu strong.

So before we get into the sheet [free download at the end of this post] let me unpack these basics:

Interest Rates

For money saved in the bank, interest rates determine how much your saved money grows over time, or the amount that banks pay you to keep your money in their account. They would then use your money to lend borrowers and charge them that interest.

Moneysmart’s already compiled a nice, updated list of Singapore interest rates to refer to, but for the sake of this post I’ll assume a value of 1%. This means my saved money today would grow by 1% per annum over the years.

Inflation Rates

Eroder of savings. Eater of worlds. Inflation is probably the number 1 reason to invest your money, and also why my iced kopi costs $1.40 instead of $0.90 like it used to back in school.

Inflation is the rate of increase of prices of stuff (goods and services la) over time. Inflation has many causes – higher costs of stuff-production, higher wages of stuff-makers (shame on your payraise), higher demand for stuff (e.g. when people in developing citiers can afford higher standards of living) and government policies are the usual suspects.

What’s Singapore’s inflation rate? Most sources use the Consumer Price Index (CPI), which tracks the change in price of commonly purchased goods and services, including housing and transportation.

For this post, however, I’ll be using the MAS Core Inflation, which excludes fluctuations in housing and transport. More info here!


To be a little conservative, let’s go with a fixed inflation rate of 2% per annum.


A popular topic – this could bloat up a post real quick. However, it’ll be good to illustrate just what can happen without investment, so I’m going to assume an investment growth rate of 0%. Keke.

Here we go.

Savings between Iced Americano ($5.00) to Kopi O Kosong peng ($1.40) = $3.60

Saving $3.60 a day means $1,310 a year! That may not look like much, and indeed $1,310 saved in the bank (earning interest) will only have the spending power of $1,221 in 7 years.

Summing up the accumulated years of savings, 7 years of disciplined cheap coffee drinking would result in an extra $10,124 in my bank account.

If I invested those savings, say, in CPF top-ups with a guaranteed rate of 4%…

$1,310 saved this year would no longer be worth less next year, but more. Specifically, the growth percentage would look like this:

Growth of Savings = Interest Rate – Inflation + Investment Growth

= 1% – 2% + 4%

= 2%

Measly. But much better than the -1% you would be “earning” if you let your money lose to inflation in the bank.

I hope you enjoyed this breakdown of savings – let me know if there’s any

-Improvements I can make

-Clear explanations you’d like for certain pointers

-Other stuff you think I missed out

I’d love to hear them! You can post in the comments if you like.

Download of the sheet used above:

Have fun!

P.S. If you want updates on these posts, let me know by subscribing below. Cheersies.

Choosing Your House by Floor Area – What does a Sqft and a Sqm Look like?

I’m the typical 20+ year old nearing my thirties – checking out housing options in Singapore, itching to move out of home. Inspired by talks with peers and this post from The Woke Salaryman, it’s now a habit to check out Propertyguru, and SRX from time to time get a sense of the real estate here.

Photos give me a clear picture of what living in the place will be like.

Price tells me how much I’d be sacrificing monthly on a mortgage or rent.

Floor Area … doesn’t ring any intuitive bells. I can’t ‘feel’ what a 45sqm studio or a 700sqft HDB flat looks like.

So I thought it would be helpful to feed my intuition by starting with relatable lego blocks, then scaling them up to fit some common floorplans in Singapore. Hopefully this helps you too!

The Basics

A Square Meter (sqm) is a unit of area (Length x Width) defined as the area of a 1m x 1m square.

In imperial units, the same square would be 10.76sqft.

1m = 3.28ft

1sqm = 1m x 1m = 3.28ft x 3.28ft = 10.76sqft

Intuitive lego block 1: mattresses!

Queen size is veh lucky.

In a nutshell,

  • Super Single beds ≈ 2sqm
  • Queens ≈ 3sqm
  • Kings ≈ 3.5sqm

On to the houses!

Singapore’s housing sizes change over time, so I used the amazing Teoalida’s research to narrow down a rough floor area size for 5 types of flat:

  • 1 Room / Studio: 36 sqm / 388sqft
  • 2 Room HDB: 45sqm / 484sqft
  • 3 Room HDB: 65sqm / 700sqft
  • 4 Room HDB: 95sqm / 1023sqft
  • 5 Room HDB: 115sqm / 1238sqft

Immediately, before going into pictures, we can divide these by mattresses to get a rough sense of their size:

  • 1 Room / Studios: ~10 Kings + 1 Super Single (36.6sqm/394sqft)
  • 2 Room HDB: ~13 Kings (44.95sqm/483.9sqft)
  • 3 Room HDB: ~18 Kings + 1 Queen (65.13sqm/701.1sqft)
  • 4 Room HDB: ~27 Kings + 1 Super Single (93.95sqm/1011.3sqft)
  • 5 Room HDB: ~33 Kings + 2 Super Singles (115.29sqm/1240.9sqft)

And now, some graphics.

For this one, I think it helps to simply think of 35 sqm as 10 king sized beds.

Roughly 3 more kingbeds equate to 9 more sqm!

Things start to get huge for the 3-rooms, the main difference being the twinning of the bathrooms and the bedrooms. Here, its easiest to think of it as 65sqm ≃ 700sqft ≃ 18 King beds.

With an additional bedroom and extension of the livingroom space, the 4-roomer is about 1000sqft, which is roughly 27 king-sized beds.

For the luxurious 5-room flat, the living room gets an extra space in this project, which is roughly 115sqm, about 33 King beds plus 2 Super Singles.

Hope the pictures above and the lists help you visualise floor areas for your own home searching! if you have suggestions or comments to make this more helpful, type them to me in the comments or contact page. Cheers!

The Big List of Grab Rewards – Compiling the points per dollar.

I’m a project engineer and we do late nights sometimes!

While I’m not a cab guy (Public Transport is a no-brainer here!) (If you’re childless) (And don’t work in Jurong Island), the chains of late nights have a glorious hidden benefit – racking up them Grab Rewards perks. (Not sponsored, chill.)

I’ll get right to it: I sheeted all rewards I could see on my app, added their equivalent value and calculated the points/SGD for each one.

What the points/SGD column means: Lower is better. It means you can use up fewer points to get back a dollar.

The categories listed on the app are Entertainment, F&B, Grab, Limited Edition, Services, Travel and Shopping. Here goes:

So which one is the ‘most‘ worth it?

To find this, look for the lowest points/SGD item in each table. This means that you are getting the most SGD you can get from each point used.

The overall lowest points/SGD here (i.e. best deal!) is the yogofi 20% off monthly wifi voucher at 7.8 points spent per SGD.

In second place is the 80% discount of PHS Hair Science’s scalp treatment service, at 21.1 points spent for each SDS redeemed.

In third is the $30 voucher for Earnest & Collective for men’s shoes. Again, quite a niche audience, but a very worthy 133.3 points per SGD redeemed!

Important note: There’s no clear ‘best’, really, because of the “% off”-type rewards you can redeem.

Technically, if you redeem a %-off-type voucher, the amount of SGD you save is endless because it scales with the total amount spent. Also, with rewards like Yogofi’s unlimited monthly wifi, I maxed out the value by putting in the most expensive daily plan ($12.90/day for Middle East, Egypt, Reunion, South Africa), so your mileage may vary!

Did I miss anything? How can I improve this next time? Let me know what you think (comments section below). Cheers!

Sources for Value column:

RewardProviderPointsValue (SGD)Points/SGDCategorySource
$25 lounge passAmbassador Transit Lounge0$340.0Travel
$30 lounge passBlossom Lounge0$280.0Travel
$30 lounge passPlaza Premium Lounge0$250.0Travel
20% off Unlimited Monthly WifiYogofi600$777.8Travel
80% off Scalp Repair TreatmentPHS Hair Science4500$21421.1Services
$30 voucherEarnest Collective4000$30133.3Shopping
$5 off per personAmazing Chambers Singapura1200$5240.0Entertainment
$5 off per personTrapped Real Escape Room1200$5240.0Entertainment
$5 voucherHologate1250$5250.0Entertainment
$5 voucherM-BarSG Mini KTV1250$5250.0Entertainment
$5 voucherGrain1250$5250.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherBakening1250$5250.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherThe Black Hole Group1250$5250.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherHard Rock Café1250$5250.0Food & Beverage
$5 off StashawayStashaway1250$5250.0Services
$5 voucherLove, Bonito1250$5250.0Shopping
4 months of movie subscriptionCATCHPLAY+10000$40252.5Entertainment
$5 voucherNational Geographic1300$5260.0Shopping
JBL Pulse 3JBL89000$339262.5Limited Edition
$15 voucherZairyo4000$15266.7Shopping
CK550 Gaming KeyboardCooler Master48000$129372.1Limited Edition
1 XXL Crispy ChickenShihlin Taiwan Street Snacks2450$6379.8Food & Beverage
$10 offJBL3800$10380.0Shopping
$5 voucherNaiise1900$5380.0Shopping
$5 voucherUdders Ice Cream1925$5385.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherSaladStop!1925$5385.0Food & Beverage
$5 offJBL1925$5385.0Shopping
MW07 PLUS True WirelessMaster & Dynamic181000$469385.9Limited Edition
G502 HERO Gaming MouseLogitech50000$129387.6Limited Edition
MW07 GO True WirelessMaster & Dynamic118000$299394.6Limited Edition!54483208270!!!pla-297963845945!c!297963845945!1418430599!117709803&gclid=CjwKCAjwkPX0BRBKEiwA7THxiBwGbasLSjq-_iv5FhgvvFdPRkvwK_EmoGhaXO48grtGZNXCvvIh1BoCBqMQAvD_BwE
$10 voucherIUIGA4500$10450.0Shopping
Wonderboom 2 wireless speakerUltimate Ears60000$126476.2Limited Edition
JBL Flip 3 StealthJBL42000$85494.1Limited Edition
Razer Gold $10Razer Gold5000$10500.0Entertainment
$3 voucherStarbucks1500$3500.0Food & Beverage
$5 offAwfully Chocolate2500$5500.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherBURGER KING2500$5500.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherBreadTalk2500$5500.0Food & Beverage
$10 voucherParadise Group5000$10500.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherSwensen’s2500$5500.0Food & Beverage
$5 voucherToast Box2500$5500.0Food & Beverage
$5 off a Grab ride!Grab2500$5500.0Grab
$10 off a Grab ride!Grab5000$10500.0Grab
$5 off your GrabFood order!Grab2500$5500.0Grab
$10 off your GrabFood order!Grab5000$10500.0Grab
$5 off your GrabExpress deliveryGrab2500$5500.0Grab
$10 off your GrabExpress deliveryGrab5000$10500.0Grab
$5 offCold Storage2500$5500.0Shopping
$5 voucherFairPrice2500$5500.0Shopping
$5 offQoo102500$5500.0Shopping
$10 voucherLazada Singapore5000$10500.0Shopping
$20 voucherRedMart10000$20500.0Shopping
5000 STAR$CapitaStar2500$5500.0Shopping
$20 voucherLazada Singapore10000$20500.0Shopping
$50 voucherLazada Singapore25000$50500.0Shopping
$30 voucherLazada Singapore15000$30500.0Shopping
$5 voucherSephora2500$5500.0Shopping
$10 voucherSephora5000$10500.0Shopping
$5 voucherFOX Kids & Baby2500$5500.0Shopping
Apple AirPods ProApple190000$379501.3Limited Edition
100 ALL PointsALL – Accor Live Limitless1600$3518.3Travel
JBL Tune 120TWSJBL53000$99535.4Limited Edition
$1 off a Grab ride!Grab550$1550.0Grab
$1 off your GrabFood order!Grab550$1550.0Grab
$1 off your GrabExpress deliveryGrab550$1550.0Grab
ECOVACS DEEBOT OZMO 920Ecovacs275000$499551.1Limited Edition!54483208270!!!pla-297963845945!c!297963845945!1680862007!142666802&gclid=CjwKCAjwkPX0BRBKEiwA7THxiBYAP3Bbn6g77tPxVbxTaLARYuqTXHl2-6sbAxNUWWK03ppOOtM5txoCKV0QAvD_BwE
500 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer5000$9555.6Travel
1000 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer10000$18555.6Travel
50 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer500$1555.6Travel
100 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer1000$2555.6Travel
FIFA 20 1,600 FIFA POINTSEA SPORTS FIFA 2012500$22568.2Entertainment
Nintento Switch consoleNintendo240000$399601.5Limited Edition–First-Generation–i.12852945.691055692?gclid=CjwKCAjwkPX0BRBKEiwA7THxiINATqOg4DhHt4rOFVujXvKoBLCEbuVGNbHEeARmXfBasW9H2wrKRRoCKAUQAvD_BwE
Apple Watch Nike Series 5Apple400000$599667.8Limited Edition
iPhone 11 Pro 64GBApple825000$999825.8Limited Edition
500 LinkPointsPlus! Rewards Programme2900$3870.0Shopping
1 Free GiftRoses Only2000Limited Edition
70% offAdeva Spa5000Services
70% offSpa Rael5000Services
35% off 1 supplementGNC3000Shopping
20% offFlowerAdvisor1200Shopping
Upgrade to Genius userBooking.com0Travel
20% discountCentral Thai0Travel
20% discountHudsons Coffee0Travel
20% discountPret A Manger0Travel
20% discountStraits Food Village0Travel
20% discountTanuki Raw Express0Travel
20% discountTGM0Travel
20% discountThe Kitchen by Wolfgang Puck0Travel
20% discountThe World is Flat0Travel
20% discountTiger Den0Travel
20% discount4Fingers Crispy Chicken0Travel
15% discountColonial Club0Travel
15% discountChutney Mary0Travel
15% discountHong Kong Sheng Kee Dessert0Travel
15% discountKaveri Vegetarian Cuisine0Travel
15% discountNiigata Bento0Travel
15% discountPappamia0Travel
10% discountCrystal Jade0Travel
10% discountInternational Food Hall0Travel
10% discountSingapore Food Street0Travel
RewardProviderPointsValue (SGD)Points/SGDCategorySource
$25 lounge passAmbassador Transit Lounge0$250.00Travel
$30 lounge passBlossom Lounge0$300.00Travel
$30 lounge passPlaza Premium Lounge0$300.00Travel
20% off Unlimited Monthly WifiYogofi600$777.75Travel
80% off Scalp Repair TreatmentPHS Hair Science4500$21421.07Services
$30 voucherEarnest Collective4000$30133.33Shopping
$5 off per personAmazing Chambers Singapura1200$5240.00Entertainment
$5 off per personTrapped Real Escape Room1200$5240.00Entertainment
$5 voucherLove, Bonito1250$5250.00Shopping
$5 voucherHologate1250$5250.00Entertainment
$5 voucherGrain1250$5250.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherBakening1250$5250.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherThe Black Hole Group1250$5250.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherM-BarSG Mini KTV1250$5250.00Entertainment
$5 voucherHard Rock Café1250$5250.00Food & Beverage
$5 off StashawayStashaway1250$5250.00Services
4 months of movie subscriptionCATCHPLAY+10000$40252.53Entertainment
$5 voucherNational Geographic1300$5260.00Shopping
JBL Pulse 3JBL89000$339262.54Limited Edition
$15 voucherZairyo4000$15266.67Shopping
CK550 Gaming KeyboardCooler Master48000$129372.09Limited Edition
1 XXL Crispy ChickenShihlin Taiwan Street Snacks2450$6379.84Food & Beverage
$10 offJBL3800$10380.00Shopping
$5 voucherNaiise1900$5380.00Shopping
$5 offJBL1925$5385.00Shopping
$5 voucherUdders Ice Cream1925$5385.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherSaladStop!1925$5385.00Food & Beverage
MW07 PLUS True WirelessMaster & Dynamic181000$469385.93Limited Edition
G502 HERO Gaming MouseLogitech50000$129387.60Limited Edition
MW07 GO True WirelessMaster & Dynamic118000$299394.65Limited Edition!54483208270!!!pla-297963845945!c!297963845945!1418430599!117709803&gclid=CjwKCAjwkPX0BRBKEiwA7THxiBwGbasLSjq-_iv5FhgvvFdPRkvwK_EmoGhaXO48grtGZNXCvvIh1BoCBqMQAvD_BwE
$10 voucherIUIGA4500$10450.00Shopping
Wonderboom 2 wireless speakerUltimate Ears60000$126476.19Limited Edition
JBL Flip 3 StealthJBL42000$85494.12Limited Edition
$5 offCold Storage2500$5500.00Shopping
$5 voucherFairPrice2500$5500.00Shopping
$5 offQoo102500$5500.00Shopping
$10 voucherLazada Singapore5000$10500.00Shopping
Razer Gold $10Razer Gold5000$10500.00Entertainment
$20 voucherRedMart10000$20500.00Shopping
5000 STAR$CapitaStar2500$5500.00Shopping
$20 voucherLazada Singapore10000$20500.00Shopping
$50 voucherLazada Singapore25000$50500.00Shopping
$30 voucherLazada Singapore15000$30500.00Shopping
$5 voucherSephora2500$5500.00Shopping
$10 voucherSephora5000$10500.00Shopping
$5 voucherFOX Kids & Baby2500$5500.00Shopping
$3 voucherStarbucks1500$3500.00Food & Beverage
$5 offAwfully Chocolate2500$5500.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherBURGER KING2500$5500.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherBreadTalk2500$5500.00Food & Beverage
$10 voucherParadise Group5000$10500.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherSwensen’s2500$5500.00Food & Beverage
$5 voucherToast Box2500$5500.00Food & Beverage
$5 off a Grab ride!Grab2500$5500.00Grab
$10 off a Grab ride!Grab5000$10500.00Grab
$5 off your GrabFood order!Grab2500$5500.00Grab
$10 off your GrabFood order!Grab5000$10500.00Grab
$5 off your GrabExpress deliveryGrab2500$5500.00Grab
$10 off your GrabExpress deliveryGrab5000$10500.00Grab
Apple AirPods ProApple190000$379501.32Limited Edition
100 ALL PointsALL – Accor Live Limitless1600$3518.30Travel
JBL Tune 120TWSJBL53000$99535.35Limited Edition
$1 off a Grab ride!Grab550$1550.00Grab
$1 off your GrabFood order!Grab550$1550.00Grab
$1 off your GrabExpress deliveryGrab550$1550.00Grab
ECOVACS DEEBOT OZMO 920Ecovacs275000$499551.10Limited Edition!54483208270!!!pla-297963845945!c!297963845945!1680862007!142666802&gclid=CjwKCAjwkPX0BRBKEiwA7THxiBYAP3Bbn6g77tPxVbxTaLARYuqTXHl2-6sbAxNUWWK03ppOOtM5txoCKV0QAvD_BwE
500 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer5000$9555.56Travel
1000 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer10000$18555.56Travel
50 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer500$1555.56Travel
100 KrisFlyer MilesKrisFlyer1000$2555.56Travel
FIFA 20 1,600 FIFA POINTSEA SPORTS FIFA 2012500$22568.18Entertainment
Nintento Switch consoleNintendo240000$399601.50Limited Edition–First-Generation–i.12852945.691055692?gclid=CjwKCAjwkPX0BRBKEiwA7THxiINATqOg4DhHt4rOFVujXvKoBLCEbuVGNbHEeARmXfBasW9H2wrKRRoCKAUQAvD_BwE
Apple Watch Nike Series 5Apple400000$599667.78Limited Edition
iPhone 11 Pro 64GBApple825000$999825.83Limited Edition
500 LinkPointsPlus! Rewards Programme2900$3870.00Shopping
35% off 1 supplementGNC3000Shopping
Upgrade to Genius userBooking.com0Travel
70% offAdeva Spa5000Travel
70% offSpa Rael5000Travel
20% offFlowerAdvisor1200Travel
20% discountCentral Thai0Travel
20% discountHudsons Coffee0Travel
20% discountPret A Manger0Travel
20% discountStraits Food Village0Travel
20% discountTanuki Raw Express0Travel
20% discountTGM0Travel
20% discountThe Kitchen by Wolfgang Puck0Travel
20% discountThe World is Flat0Shopping
20% discountTiger Den0Travel
20% discount4Fingers Crispy Chicken0Travel
15% discountColonial Club0Travel
15% discountChutney Mary0Travel
15% discountHong Kong Sheng Kee Dessert0Travel
15% discountKaveri Vegetarian Cuisine0Travel
15% discountNiigata Bento0Travel
15% discountPappamia0Travel
10% discountCrystal Jade0Travel
10% discountInternational Food Hall0Limited Edition
10% discountSingapore Food Street0Services
1 Free GiftRoses Only2000Services

Singapore Stock Clock: A Quick Way to Track International Stock Market Timings

I invest in stocks from time to time. (I started off with the SAXO Trader platform, which has been convenient so far.) (Chill, they’re not a sponsor.) (Yet.) (Plz.)

In the wake of this downturn, I habitually check out the US stocks every night at 9.30pm when the NASDAQ/NYSE opens. I do this to keep a more watchful eye on opportunities and potential losses.

As I trade in many countries’ exchanges, keeping track of each timezone’s stock exchanges gets tiring. The list on was a helpful reference, but I thought a single, unifying graphic would be easier to grasp the different timezones intuitively.

Check it out:

Note: Pre-Open/Pre-Closing Hours are excluded. If you want those details, the following table is for you.

Just to condense things even further, I thought it would be helpful to make a 24-hour clock to summarise the trading hours in a single graphic:

Next Steps:

  • The clock is currently purely for the SG time zone (GMT+8). It should be pretty simple to make it easy for my source files to display relevant clock/clocks and tables for other time zones.
  • A brief explanation of Daylight Savings time!

I hope you like these graphics. Please lemme know if there’s

-Anything I missed out

-Any parts you want clear explanations on

-Any other ways to improve

You can post your feedback in the comments! I look forward to it 🙂